About Menstrual cycle (Menstruation)

What are Menstrual Cycle ?

Menstrual cycle is an important part of a woman’s reproductive life. 

The usual age for the onset of menstrual cycle is 12- 13 years but it may vary from person to person and other environmental factors. 

The length of the menstruation can fluctuate from 3 to 5 weeks without any prior alarm. 
About Menstrual cycle

How Menstrual cycle occurs? 

Menstruation occurs when the endometrium (an inner lining of the uterus) sheds. 
This menstrual flow contains blood and mucus from the cervix (an opening at the lower third of the uterus) and vagina. 
The area of the brain called hypothalamus along with pituitary glands control the hormones necessary for the reproductive organs. Six hormones namely, 
  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) , 
  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , 
  3. Luteinizing hormone (LH) , 
  4. Estrogen, 
  5. Progesterone, 
  6. Testosterone control your menstruation process.
Pain during menstruation 
Painful menstruation or dysmenorrhea is the most common problem for any woman. 
This causes inability to carry day to day responsibilities due to lower abdominal cramping, vomiting, nausea and headache during menstruation. 
Pain during menstruation can be categorized into two types. 
  1. One is the primary dysmenorrhea which is quite normal because of painful contractions as a result of release of natural substances called prostaglandins from the uterine walls. 
  2.  The second one or secondary dysmenorrhea is evident after many years of normal menstruation as a disease of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. 
Most common factors include abnormal growth, tumors, pelvic infection, uterine cancer or even endometriosis. Endometriosis is a disease whereby the uterine tissue is found outside the uterus, in fallopian tubes or ovaries. This could also end up in infertility. 

Menstruation stopping Many women also face stopping of menstruation for a period say 6 months or more are said to have amenorrhea or absence of menstruation. Another reason for stopping of menstruation includes stress among women that whether they are pregnant or will have their menstruation in time. 
Emotional stress, physical and mental health problems can also lead to stopped periods for a long time. Menstruation stops during pregnancy and if a women intakes birth control pills then it takes 6 months to year to resume normal periods. 
Reasons or factors for stopping menstrual cycles: 
  • 1. Sometimes women don’t have menstruation as their ovaries don’t respond properly to the hormones releasing egg 
  •  2. Ovarian cysts and obstruction in the reproductive tracts 
  •  3. Poor nutrition
  •  4. Vigorous exercises 
  •  5. Diabetes 
  •  6. Tuberculosis 
  •  7. Non alcoholic liver disease
  •  8. Chronic illness 
  •  9. Medications such as birth control pills 
  •  10. Obesity